Table 1

The cultures of nature
Kowarik’s four natures Hunt’s three natures
Nature 1 Old wilderness Wilderness
Nature 2 Traditional cultural landscape (including agriculture) The agrarian landscape
Nature 3 Functional greenery (e.g., parks, street trees) The garden
Nature 4 New wilderness (e.g., post-industrial sites, succession woodlands)

As adapted from Kowarik (2005); As adapted from Hunt (2000).


Sack Ecological Processes 2013 2:35   doi:10.1186/2192-1709-2-35

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