Management options for restoration where (a) novelty and (b) a novel ecosystem have been identified. Decisions need to be taken by working through questions 1–4 (left hand side); depending on your ecosystem’s current condition, different goals are options for restoration management as further explored in the main text. Example management actions are provided for ecosystems identified as novel. This figure has been modified from Hulvey et al. 2013.
Perring et al. Ecological Processes 2013 2:18 doi:10.1186/2192-1709-2-18